Intersubjectivity 還是「同理」?

Yuval Noah Harari 新作 Homo Deus 說人類(Homo Sapiens)所認知的現實,除了主觀現實(subjective realities)和客觀現實(objective realities)兩者外,還有第三個層次 intersubjective


Intersubjective entities depend on communication among many humans rather on the beliefs and feelings of individual humans.

Yuval 的說法和 Merriam Webster 英英字典的釋義 involving or occurring between separate conscious minds 差不多,咱們的國家教育研究院學術名詞解釋網站,則把 intersubjective 翻譯為互為主體性,解釋文字非常學術,絕對不是寫給我們這些凡人( for the rest of us )看的

Quora 上有一篇解答,從什麼是 objective 和 subjective 開始講起,解釋為什麼會有 intersubjective 這個概念,相當平易近人。

Subjective: your personal experience of something, your sensations, thoughts, etc.

Objective: what's really out there in the world, independent of whether you perceive them or not.

But there are other people in the world, and that's where "intersubjective" comes in.

Psychology WikiWikipedia 的解釋很完整,用字遣詞更正式一點,有點像正式研究報告的寫法,但是還算接地氣,只要英文程度還可以,看懂前幾段介紹文字應該沒問題。總之,人類個體可以藉著各種溝通手段,交流分享觀點、信仰、情緒等等,進而建構一套不同個體都相信的信仰體系 (比如所謂的共識?所謂的同仇敵愾?)。

Intersubjectivity is "The sharing of subjective states by two or more individuals." (Scheff 20061). It refers to shared emotion (attunement), shared attention, and share intention.

基於以上,Yuval 認為 Homo Sapiens 能主導地球最近七萬年的發展,除了因為人類是唯一能組織大規模合作的物種之外,intersubjectivity 是第二個決定性因素,我想這兩個因素是互相支持的吧…..

Sapiens rule the world because only they can weave an intersubjective web of meaning: a web of laws, forces, entities and places that exist purely in their imagination.



  1. Scheff, Thomas et al. (2006). Goffman Unbound!: A New Paradigm for Social Science (The Sociological Imagination), Paradigm Publishers (ISBN 978-1594511967).  


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